A stressor is defined as

  1.   What statement is most accurate regarding the relationship between marriage and        homelessness?


a. There is no relationship between marriage status and homelessness.


b. Being single (i.e., never married or divorced) may be a risk factor the homelessness and it may influence duration of homelessness.


c. Marriage may be a resource or protector against homelessness, perhaps due to increased social support, sharing responsibilities, and pooling of resources.


d. Both b and c



  1.    ________ is to psychological empowerment, as _______ is to social alienation.


a. Self-efficacy, learned helplessness b. Hope, locus of control c. Locus of control, emotion-focused coping d. Self-efficacy, problem-focused coping



  1.   Which of the following psychological concepts is the most general and incorporates all of the         others listed?


a. Self-efficacy b. Psychological empowerment c. Locus of control d. Agency



  1.   Powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, self-estrangement, and cultural estrangement        are aspects of _______, which seems to be a characteristic of some homeless individuals.


a. social alienation b. learned helplessness c. low self-esteem d. none of the above



  1.   Jim is a homeless man.  During his childhood and adolescence, he was neglected and the        family environment was unresponsive to his own efforts to improve it.  His work history         consists of negative work environments where employees had very little control.  At present,        Jim generally believes that he does not have control to better his life situation.  In other        words, Jim may have…


a. a sense of learned helplessness b. PTSD c. an internal locus of control d. both a and c





  1.   A homeless woman learns that he weather forecast for tonight is that it is will be extremely        cold.  She interprets this as being dangerous to her well-being.  She has just engaged in        _______.


a. problem-focused coping b. emotion-focused coping c. primary appraisal d. secondary appraisal



  1.   A stressor is defined as…


a. any negative life event. b. any stimulus that requires adaptation. c. any traumatic event. d. any event that is not under one’s control.



  1.   Homeless people face a great deal of stressors, some of which are ongoing in a chronic        fashion.  They are also at a greater risk for health problems when compared to other        individuals regardless of SES background.  To explain how stress may contribute to health        problems in homeless individuals, an expert in the area may focus on…


a. maladaptive coping b. autonomic nervous system (especially reactivity of the sympathetic division) c. stress hormones (cortisol) and the immune system d. all of the above



  1.   Which of the following statements is accurate regarding poverty?


a. Unemployment, declining value of minimum wage, increasing housing costs, insufficient housing availability, and increasing costs of health care are factors that contribute to poverty.


b. Poverty is a risk for homelessness, and discrimination may exacerbate this risk.


c. Poverty is a major risk factor for homelessness, and in this sense it may resemble a serious mental illness, physical dependency, or any other factor that reduces one’s resiliency and ability to cope.


d. All of the above.






  1.  Which of the following statements is not accurate?


a. Minorities have experienced discrimination with regard to wages and housing availability and, in some cases, this may increase the risk for homelessness.


b. Minorities are more likely to be poor and, thus, at greater risk for homelessness.


c. According to research, minority status and discrimination are unrelated to homelessness.


d. The homeless population is disproportionally black (45%), compared to 12% of the U.S. population.



  1.  Which of the following statements is not accurate regarding the relationship between         trauma/PTSD and homelessness?


a. While trauma and PTSD are relevant in explaining how military veterans can become homeless, research indicates that trauma and PTSD are rarely involved in other cases of homelessness.


b. Some research suggests that over 90% of homeless people (men and women) reported one or more PTSD symptom in their lifetime.


c. Some research suggests that, among homeless adults, approximately 40% experienced at least one violent trauma, often before becoming homeless.


d. According to some research, approximately 30% of homeless women and 20% of homeless men actually met criteria for PTSD.



  1.  Approximately _______ of homeless men are veterans, compared to 34% in the general         population.


a. 11% b. 21% c. 41% d. 61%



  1.  The immune system becomes activated when…


a. an antibody is detected. b. a suppressor T-cell is detected. c. a B-cell is detected. d. an antigen is detected.




  1.  When an individual is under chronic stress (e.g., homelessness), the hypothalamic-Pituitary         Adrenal (HPA) Axis becomes activated, and this…


a. …causes secretion of cortisol (stress hormone), which elevates blood sugar and increases metabolid rate throughout the body.


b. …may increase the fuel supply to the cells and allow them to sustain high levels of activity in the face of prolonged stress.


c. …process may shift energy away from the synthesis of protein, including proteins necessary for a healthy immune system.


d. all of the above.



  1.  When a homeless person is threatened by another homeless person on the street, his/er         __________ (a division of the autonomic nervous system) becomes activated and prepares         him/her for a “fight or flight” reaction.


a. sympathetic nervous system b. parasympathetic nervous system c. HPA Axis d. none of the above



  1.  As a homeless person copes with the many stressors that he or she faces, __________ is         most effective for stressors that are controllable, whereas __________ is most effective for         stressors that are not under his or her control.


a. emotion-focused coping, problem-focused coping b. problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping c. primary appraisal, secondary appraisal d. secondary appraisal, primary appraisal



  1.  __________ is defined as generalized beliefs about one’s competence, efforts to exert         control, and an understanding of the sociopolitical environment.


a. Self-efficacy b. Psychological empowerment c. Locus of control d. Resiliency



  1.  If a community intervention managed to __________, then the community intervention is         said to have psychopolitical validity.


a. increased the number of soup kitchens b. enhanced agency in homeless individuals c. change local laws in ways that increased available housing for people at risk for homelessness d. both b and c




  1.  High levels of hope, self-efficacy, and psychological empowerment in a homeless person         would be considered __________; in contrast, learned helplessness, social alienation, and         low self-esteem in a homeless person would be considered  __________.


a. resiliency factors, vulnerability factors b. risk factors, resource or protective factors c. problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping d. none of the above



  1.  Social stigma can have a negative effect on a homeless person’s __________, which         involves judgments of self-worth, stemming from evaluations of one’s own personal         competence or possession of attributes that are culturally invested with positive value.


a. self-efficacy b. psychological empowerment c. self-esteem  d. locus of control



  1.  Based on the readings on deinstitutionalization and homelessness, which of the following         is/are accurate?


a. Deinstitutionalization is a contributing factor but not a sole cause of homelessness.


b. Deinstitutionalization is definitely the primary cause of homelessness.


c. Homelessness, like other stressors, may exacerbate mental illness.


d. Both a and c



  1.  When a homeless person encounters a stressor on the street or in a shelter, and he or she          interprets the stressor as being a threat to his/her wellbeing, this is referred to as…


a. coping b. primary appraisal c. secondary appraisal d. emotion-focused coping

  1.  When a health psychologist is discussing the physiological mechanisms that underlie the          relationship between stress and illness, he or she is likely to focus on…


a. the autonomic nervous system b. the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system c. emotion-focused coping d. both a and b


  1.  Some research suggests that, on average, homeless people tend to live about _____ years          less than those in the general population.


a. 28 to 30  b. 6 to 9 c. 2-to 3 d. 38 to 40



  1.   Homeless individuals often have difficulty obtaining food.  In the homeless population, obesity is…


a. about three times higher than it is in the general population

b. about two times higher than it is in the general population

c. about three times lower than it is in the general population

d. about half of what is found in the general population



  1.   __________ refers to the deprivation of basic human needs, which commonly includes         food, water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, health care, and education.


a. Poverty b. Absolute poverty c. Relative poverty d. Inequity



  1.  While the United States represents about 4.4 percent of the world’s population, it houses         around _____ percent of the world’s prisoners.


a. 1 to 3 b. 10 to 15 c. 15 to 20 d. 20 to 25



  1.  The book __________ is pertinent to the disproportionate percentage of African Americans incarcerated in America.


a. “Social Stigma, Homelessness, and Prisons” b. “Slavery by Another Name” c. “The New Jim Crow” d. Both b and c

  1.  The concept of “Community Policing” promotes which of the following ideas:


a. All homeless people should be rounded up and institutionalized (i.e., confined in a prison, a psychiatric hospital, or a shelter of some kind).


b. Homelessness should be criminalized in order to get homeless people off the streets. c. We need to promote organizational strategies that utilize community partnerships and problem-solving to proactively address immediate concerns that are pertinent to public safety.


d. The vast majority of homeless people are criminals or violent people and the police in any given community must take forceful action to control them.

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