Research Portfolio


Presentation: discourse = language + context + (texts)


Discourse is ‘language in use in a context… and how these ideas come to be constructed in texts and how they affect the context in which they occur’ (Phillips & Domenico, 2009, 550)


  • Language [verbal, written, visual] is a social practice… [i.e.] it is a mode of action… [that is] always… socially and historically situated… – it is socially shaped, but it is also socially shaping, or constitutive … of (i) social identities, (ii) social relations and (iii) systems of knowledge and belief…’(Fairclough, 1993, p. 134; original emphasis).
  • Context is the circumstance (i.e. historical/political/social/cultural setting) in which the language is produced and can be made sense of.
  • Text is ‘[the object] that you can interpret, have a meaning.



Intratextuality is the relationship between texts internal to it.


Intertextuality is relationship between a text and others external to it.


Semiotics is the study of reading signs and the relationship between signifier(symbols) and signified (sth that was affected).



Why study discourse in marketing and management?

=>discourse does not merely describe reality (how things are) but also contributes to the production of reality (‘creates’ it)

  • contributes to:
    • hegemony – “a more or less partial and temporary achievement, an ‘unstable equilibrium’ [of a norm] which is a focus of struggle, open to disarticulation and rearticulation” (Fairclough, 1993, p. 137).

e.g. discourses on free markets justify capitalism as the hegemonic economic system or discourses on ‘hard work’ justify hegemonic wage stratification

  • governmentality – technologies and techniques of power which are embedded within the mundane practices of social institutions

(e.g. schools or prisons), and are productive of social subjects

[and hegemonic social relations] (ibid, p. 139).

e.g. discourse on ethical consumption consolidate consumer subjectivity; discourses on maternalism consolidate the relationship between masculinity and ambition.





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