. Watch the following video on Replacing Body Parts (
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLs8DeHVkec) . Write a 3 paragraph (5 sentences each) summary of the video. What did you think of the windpipe transplant (5 sentences)? If it becomes possible to grow a new heart, do you think the average person will worry less or more about having a healthy diet and exercising (4 sentences)?
- In the module section, chapter 10 (12.4), read the article Sitting is the New Smoking. Write a 6 sentence summary of the article. What do the letters NEAT stand for? What effect does Neat have on controlling weight (2 sentences)? Read the article Study offers clues to emotional eating in the module section, chapter 9 (11.3). Write a 2 paragraph (4 sentences each) summary of the article. Do you agree or disagree with this article and why (3 sentences)? Read the segments Is eating bread crust good for you? and the Science of making bread. Write a 2 paragraph (4 sentences each) for each segment.
#Sitting is the New Smoking
by Shape Up America! · July 1, 2015
Too much sitting is hazardous to your health, even if you exercise. Researchers from the University of Toronto reviewed 47 studies and found that people who sat too much had a higher risk of diabetes, heart disease, cancer and early death. The health risks were greater in adults who did little or no exercise, but even regular exercise didn’t erase the harm from sitting for up to half the day. The more you sit, the greater the risk of dying prematurely from heart disease. And the more difficult it is to manage your weight.
Daily physical activity is good for your health, but it’s not just what’s done in the 30 minutes or one hour of exercise that matters, it’s also the movement that’s done throughout the day, like carrying groceries or getting the mail. These everyday activities get you up and moving and can also benefit your weight.
The calorie-burning from everyday activities and movement is called NEAT or Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis. What counts as NEAT? The activities you do as part of your daily life like walking in your home or workplace, climbing stairs, fidgeting and standing are NEAT. But not intentional exercise like taking a brisk walk or working out in a gym.
In a 2006 study by the Mayo Clinic, researchers compared NEAT in inactive people who were at a healthy weight or obese. Those who were obese spent over 2½ more hours of their day sitting than the others who did more standing and moving. The researchers found that people with the most NEAT activity had the lowest amount of body fat, which can lead to better health. Based on this study, moving more as you go about your daily life can also help you manage your weight.
Shape Up America!® encourages plenty of exercise, especially for people who have lost weight and want to keep it off. If you are a healthy weight, sitting less can help prevent weight gain. But NEAT activities such as doing chores at home instead of sitting and watching TV, and getting up to speak to a coworker at the office burn more calories than calling, emailing or texting.
Bottom Line: For good health and weight control, sit less and move more. Some ideas for work and play:
- Get up from your chair for a couple minutes every hour.
- Have a “walk and talk” business meeting.
- Consider a “standing desk” or a “treadmill desk” to sit less at work.
- Stand up and stretch or walk around during TV commercials and while on the phone.
- Move to the music on your smart phone or radio and dance away!
- Wear a pedometer to count the steps you take each day.
#Study offers clues to emotional eating
The study drives home just how difficult it can be to eat healthy and resist so-called emotional eating in a stressful world.
- Researchers “fed” the volunteers through an unmarked stomach tube
- The study is among the first to show that the effect of food on mood is biologically based
- Participants were given brief mood surveys after receiving a saline or fat solution
- They found sad music considerably more depressing after the saline solution
(Health.com) — Anyone who’s sought solace in pizza or a pint of ice cream knows that food can be comforting. But experts still don’t know exactly why we gravitate toward fatty or sugary foods when we’re feeling down, or how those foods affect our emotions.
Taste and the pleasant memories associated with junk foods surely play a role, but that may be only part of the story. According to a small new study, hormones in our stomachs appear to communicate directly with our brains, independent of any feelings we have about a particular food.
Most research on food and emotion has looked at the overall experience of eating — the tastes, smells, and textures, in addition to nutrients. In this study, however, the researchers took that subjective experience off the table by “feeding” the volunteers through an unmarked stomach tube.
Even in this artificial environment, saturated fat appeared to fend off negative emotions. The study volunteers were more upbeat after listening to sad music and seeing sad faces if their bellies were full of saturated fat versus a simple saline solution, which suggests that emotional eating operates on a biological as well as psychological level, researchers say.
The study is among the first to show that the effect of food on mood is “really independent of pleasant stimuli,” says Giovanni Cizza, M.D., an obesity and neuroendocrinology researcher at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, in Bethesda, Maryland, who was not involved in the study. “It is even more rooted in our biology.”
The biological mechanism at work is still unclear, but the findings suggest that the stomach may influence the brain by releasing hormones, says Lukas Van Oudenhove, M.D., one of the study authors and a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Leuven, in Belgium.
The deep-seated connection between our stomachs and our brains helped keep humans alive when food was scarce (as it was during most of human history), but it may have outlived its usefulness and may be contributing to modern health problems such as obesity, Van Oudenhove adds.
“Evolution has made every aspect of feeding as rewarding as possible,” he says. “These days it may not be a good thing anymore. When food is available anywhere, then it may be a bad thing, leading to obesity or eating disorders in some people.”
The study drives home just how difficult it can be to eat healthy and resist so-called emotional eating in our stressful world, says Susan Albers, Psy.D., a psychologist at the Cleveland Clinic and the author of “50 Ways to Soothe Yourself Without Food.”
“Given the strong soothing effect of food on a biological level, we have to work even harder to find ways to soothe and comfort ourselves without calories,” Albers says. “This is important in the long run for managing your weight, improving your self-esteem, and protecting your overall health.”
The study, which appears in the August issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, included 12 healthy, normal-weight volunteers.
Van Oudenhove and his colleagues infused one of two “meals” into the stomachs of the volunteers: a solution of saturated fatty acids, or a saline control solution. (The researchers used a fat-based solution because comfort foods are often fatty, and because they were familiar with the brain’s response to the solution from earlier research.)
After the feeding, the researchers induced feelings of sadness in the volunteers by playing sad classical music and showing them images of faces with sad expressions — techniques that have proven to be downers in previous experiments.
Brief mood surveys administered throughout the experiment revealed that the participants found the sad music considerably more depressing after receiving the saline solution than after the fat solution.
Functional MRI brain scans taken during the experiment echoed these findings: Compared to the saline solution, the fatty solution appeared to dampen activity in parts of the brain that are involved in sadness and that responded to the gloomy music.
The fleeting feelings of sadness experienced by the study volunteers pale in comparison to some of the emotions that people try to address with food in real life, Albers says. “Think about how this compares to some real-world problems people face, like illness, loss of a job, or a divorce,” she says. “We are often under a constant state of stress.”
Therapy or other treatments that “teach people how to deal with strong emotions would likely…help people improve their eating habits,” she says.
In an editorial accompanying the study, Cizza and a colleague at the NIDDK say that the “most important” question raised by the study is whether obese people respond to fatty foods in the same way as the normal-weight volunteers.
For instance, he says, the brains of obese people may resist soothing signals from the gut more strongly than the brains of leaner people.
But there’s nothing wrong with occasionally eating unhealthy comfort food, Cizza adds.
“Evolution has provided us with, if you wish, an over-the-counter anti-anxiety or anti-sadness product,” he says. “Maybe if you’re sad and you feel like that chocolate could help you, go for it. Don’t feel too guilty, but try to limit what you eat and maybe later cut down on something else.”
Is eating bread crust really good for you?
It’s not uncommon for picky eaters to trim the bread crust from a PB&J before eating it. But what these folks may not realize is that when they remove the crusts from sandwiches, they’re also removing a powerhouse of antioxidants.
A study published in the American Chemical Society’s Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry explains the various health benefits of eating bread crust. Bread crust not only contains powerful antioxidants that can combat cancer, it is also rich in dietary fiber, which can prevent colon cancer. Researchers at the German Research Center of Food Chemistry in Garching, Germany, experimented with an everyday sourdough bread mixture. Through analyzing the bread crust, bread crumbs from the paler inside of the bread and flour, researchers discovered that pronyl-lysine, an antixodant, was eight times more plentiful in the bread crust than in the other components of the bread. Pronyl-lysine was not at all present in the flour [source: Science Daily].
The Science of Bread Baking
When you pop a slice of bread into the toaster, you’re setting off a complicated set of chemical reactions. When you bake bread, the addition of heat causes carbon found in the carbohydrates of the bread to combine with the amino acids of the proteins, resulting in a browning of the surface of the bread. This process, known as the Maillard reaction, discovered by Louis-Camille Maillard in the early 1900s, was long credited by scientists for producing different flavor components and the brown color on the surface of baked breads. However, in recent years, researchers have credited the Maillard reaction with producing antioxidants that are beneficial to those who consume bread crust.
The antioxidant pronyl-lysine forms as a result of the Maillard reaction when starch and reducing sugars react with the protein-bound amino acid L-lysine. In a study published in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention, researchers found that rats that ingested pronyl-lysine experienced increased enzymic antioxidant activities [source: European Journal of Cancer Prevention].